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The Value Chain of hydrocarbons, consists of two major areas: Upstream and Downstream.

Giorgina Zanotti 06/04/2014
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Also known as exploration and production (E & P), this sector includes the tasks of searching for potential deposits of crude oil and natural gas, both underground and submarine, drilling exploratory wells, and subsequently drilling and exploration of the wells that carry the crude oil or natural gas to the surface.

Seismic Exploration:
The process by which energy waves pass through the layers of rock, are returned to the surface and arrive at special equipment called geophones, which receive the information and transmit it to a computer.
The final product obtained from the seismic exploration is a representative image of the layers below the earth. (ANH)

Perforation Exploration:
It consists of drilling wells, whose purpose is to reach the rock layer where possibly the hydrocarbons (oil and gas) could be accumulated. This stage usually starts after the seismic study information is obtained. (ANH)

It is the process by which the hydrocarbons (oil and gas) are extracted from the rock layer to the surface.
Two mechanisms are used to extract the hydrocarbons: through valves called Christmas Tree (when hydrocarbons flow to the surface on their own) and by a machine called Rocker (when it needs help to climb to the surface.

It is commonly referred to the refinement of crude oil and the processing and purification of natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas.

Refining consists of transforming the oil by subjecting it to high temperatures, which reach 400 degrees Celsius, to obtain by-products.
A process by which a large variety of derivative products, mainly fuels (ACPM and gasoline) and petrochemicals (petroleum jars, brushes, tires, plastics) are transformed.

It consists of transporting them from the mouth of the well to the storage and processing sites, such as pumping stations, refineries and marketing centers (ports).
Hydrocarbons are transported through pipelines (oil), gas pipelines (gas), tankers (oil) and ships (oil).

In this link are made all those activities of a commercial nature, to make the products available to users. Wholesale or retail distributors are usually used.

Kinos Group
We manage demand for the purchase of companies or facilities related to the Hydrocarbons sector.
Gas station chains, Oil storage. Companies related to this sector.
Investments in companies or assets. We are looking for investments of more than 10 million euros. You can contact us at

The chain of the hydrocarbon sector corresponds to the set of economic activities related to the exploration, production, transport, refining or processing and commercialization of the non-renewable natural resources known as hydrocarbons (organic material composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon) is formed by the regulation and administration of these activities.